We know that sadness signals a perceived loss. But what do positive emotions signal and what are they for? Psychologists extensively studied emotions but mostly focused on negative emotions. Why Were Positive Emotions Neglected?
Although in one sense it is larger than both and in another it is the servant of both. Neither is power the same as responsibility, which is the accountability and usually the formal accountability that each individual has for his or her job in the organisation.
Understanding Authority Authority refers to the formal power to act, conferred on an individual to enable him to fulfil his responsibilities. It is usually fairly well-defined in order to limit the powers available to the individual Cole Traditional Authority is the type of authority where the traditional rights of a powerful and dominant individual or group are accepted, or at least not challenged, by subordinate individuals.
These could be i religious, sacred, or spiritual forms, ii well established and slowly changing culture, or iii tribal, family, or clan type structures. Different types of traditional authority might be i gerontocracy or rule by elders, ii patriarchalism where positions are inherited.
Charismatic Authority defined by Weber as, "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him" Weberp That is, charisma is a quality of an individual personality that is considered extraordinary, and followers may consider this quality to be endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or exceptional powers or qualities.
Whether such powers actually exist or not is irrelevant — the fact that followers believe that such powers exist is what is important. It can also be referred to as sapiential knowledge. Although Weber did not deny that a charismatic leader may have outstanding characteristics, his sense of charisma was more dependent on the group of disciples and the way that they define the charismatic leader.
Legal or Rational Authority.
This is authority or legitimate domination resting on "rational grounds — resting on a belief in the legality of enacted rules and the right of those elevated to authority under such rules to issues commands" Weberp. There are various ways that legal authority could develop.
Systems of convention, laws and regulation develop in many societies, and there are many different principles of legality that occur. This rational-legal form of authority may be challenged by those who are subordinate. This challenge is generally unlikely to result in dramatic changes in the nature of the system very quickly.
He identified five basic forms of Authority and defined these in the following terms: An example of this is the authority of the manager of a business. The wise manager recognises that the employee has knowledge about her or his job which the manager cannot possess.
Charismatic Authority — literally God given Authority—the right to be heard by reason of the religious, or pseudo-religious, mantle borne by the person. Commonly this is bestowed upon the clergy of the various world religions, but can be a feature of other ideologies.
Moral Authority — the right to be heard because the person is trying to bring about an improvement to the situation. Role and Role Relationship Understanding Role and Role Relationship Role is the pattern of behaviour expected by others, from a person occupying a certain position in an organisational hierarchy Huczynski and Buchanan The concept of role is one that has been used extensively to understand the behaviour of people in organisations.
A person may be observed in a single role, e. Definitions of role can depend on how they are to be used. A prescriptive definition, which is concerned with what a person, should do when he plays a certain role e.
An evaluative definition can assess how well or badly the role is being performed, against established standards or criteria. A descriptive definition, which is based on the actual duties, performed by the person and could include the content of the work done as well as the interactions engaged with.
An action definition specifies the actions involved in its performance. All four aspects of role are interrelated and interdependent. Role relationship is that intangible mixture of feelings and emotions that exist between two or more people Huczynski and Buchanan A relationship can be considered in the way in which one uses oneself in a disciplined and responsible way when dealing with a group or individual.
Individuals have role relationships with each other and these can help them to achieve their aims at work. Organisations can be thought of as a set of overlapping and interlocking role sets. A role influences the behaviour of an individual by setting limits within which he is expected to act.If this is not OK to post here, please delete.
Thank you. role of Teacher's Assistant (TA) for my University's psych dept, as well as doing some work for the psych dept of our local hospital. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy holds the belief that by changing a person’s belief of the situations involving their self, other people, and the world, it would then .
• Should emotion play such a role in the evaluation of knowledge claims? Are there circumstances under which, in order to evaluate a knowledge claim, one should ignore or, alternately, pay special attention to one’s emotions? Emotions often drive us in directions conflicting with self-interest.
Emotional decision making can also come with a number of negatives.
None of the other Emotions really understand what Sadness’s role is. Sadness would love to be more optimistic and helpful in keeping Riley happy, but she finds it so hard to be positive. Oct 05, · Your key argument on the neuroscience side seems to be that we’re hardwired to have theory of mind — basically trying to read and guess other people’s emotions — . Transactional Analysis James O. Prochaska & John C. Norcross Chapter Outline OK—You’re OK (Harris, ) and participating actively in transactional analysis, and only the environment but also the emotions and demands of the Child or the Parent.
We make quick decisions without knowing why, and then create rational reasons to justify a poor emotional decision. Jul 13, · Standardisation of care content and a one-sided view of knowledge, which allow no room for emotions, reinforce this risk. Patients, next of kin and nurses in surgical wards can raise existential questions among themselves in the encounter between life and death.
K. Integrated theory and knowledge development in. – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of emotions in fieldwork by applying grounded theory (GT).
Although analytical guidelines in GT are well documented, the implications of researcher emotions have received much less attention.