Three individuals took part in each session of the experiment: The "experimenter", who was in charge of the session. The "teacher", a volunteer for a single session. The "teacher" was led to believe that they were merely assisting, whereas they were actually the subject of the experiment.
Jewish Political Studies Review It explains how this was based partly on the lack of knowledge of the long-term after effects of psychic trauma, but even more so because of the unwillingness of German physicians to understand and accept the harm the Holocaust inflicted upon the survivors.
For them, liberation came too late. Those who did survive were mostly alone, and as they had no place to which to return, they stayed in Displaced Persons camps throughout Germany for several years.
Regaining their physical strength was the main objective, and attention was mostly given to the visible consequences of the war. The survivors met a world that could not believe and in the beginning, and although there was much pity, mostly there was a wall of silence.
The Allies wanted to restore Europe and the shattered image of Germany, and to forget the unbelievable. Mental health professionals among them victims themselves participated in the mass denial involved in rebuilding the future and not looking back.
Only two professional papers about the emotional long-term effects of the Holocaust experience were written at that time. Tas, a Dutch psychiatrist and Bergen-Belsen survivor, wrote about the suppression of the many emotions, such as anger and fear, in the returning survivor and, as this mechanism will continue to exist, he considered them to be prone to serious psychic disturbances in the future.
Friedman, an American sociologist, reacted very strongly against the rehabilitation plans in the D. He proposed an overall psychosocial program, including psychological support, as well as measures for economic and social integration of the survivors in their new homelands. The Compensation Law Almost immediately after the The psychological effects of the holocaust to people, the three Western allies introduced laws and regulations in their respective occupation zones, with the intention of rehabilitating the health and economic conditions of the victims of persecution, including the Jews.
From untilthe individual states in West Germany issued their own regulations based on those of the occupying forces, but were in no hurry to implement them.
As there was no precedent in history for such an indemnification law, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was the first to push for legislation and later for the enactment of the law. There are no real figures available about how many Holocaust survivors were then in Europe, where and how they survived, their ages, country of birth, or how many went to which countries.
But it was clear that thousands were so debilitated and impoverished that they needed the money urgently and could not afford to refuse it, even if this meant that they had to submit to humiliating interrogation.
According to Tom Segev, it was Berl Katznelson who, inintroduced the idea that Germany should pay for Jewish property that was stolen and for the suffering they were responsible for.
In SeptemberKonrad Adenauer made a declaration in the Bundestag stating that Western Germany regrets the actions of Nazi Germany and will compensate the Jews who suffered from the Nazis. The State of Israel started negotiations, about compensation for looted properties.
Through this act, Israel granted postwar Germany the moral-political qualification to become the "other Germany," and thus made it easier to return to the family of nations.
Teitelbaum makes it clear that during those years of negotiations, the discussions were about money allocated for the absorption of new immigrants, and for the development of the infrastructure of the new State. In those years, these new contacts with the "new Germany" contradicted the moral values of many in Israel.
There were protests about accepting what some called "blood money," and some survivors refrained from taking compensation. However, the majority of the survivors thought that restitution was owed to them and should be accepted, and because it constituted an admission of guilt on the part of the Germans, even though the money would not restore their losses.
Discriminatory Aspects of the Compensation Law Milton Kestenberg argues that it was only in West Germany, unlike other countries, that a person who was persecuted by the Nazis was compelled to prove damage to his health.
Even in the former East Germany, survivors were granted a pension, without having to undergo any medical examination. To submit a health claim, a survivor had to complete the necessary forms in German, bring witnesses and medical certificates. In most cases, authorities demanded more information and more evidence, a procedure that took many years.
Hereafter, the claim was referred to a physician, mostly German-born appointed by the German consulate. He had to decide that the claimant suffered considerable physical injuries or damage to health due to the persecution.
Those who had more than 25 percent disability received compensation. Kestenberg discusses the diverse discriminatory aspects of the law and the policy involved.
One of the clauses, which caused difficulties for many claimants, was that compensation could be refused for wrong or inaccurate statements - which sometimes occurred due to simplification or by negligence in the presentation of evidence.
Some claimants had to go through many reexaminations, such as being referred to another physician, and if there was a discrepancy, the claimant was ordered back to the first physician and if he was again rejected he could go to court, and undergo another examination in Germany.Eating disorders are complex and affect all kinds of people.
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The Holocaust was the most infamous expression of racial and religious hatred of modern times. The systematic, state-run persecution and murder of millions of people (six million of them Jews) by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, is an event that stands alone in history.
The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley iridis-photo-restoration.com measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience.
The Holocaust had a deep effect on society in both Europe and the rest of the world. Its impact has been felt in theological discussions, artistic and cultural pursuits, and political decisions. The after effects are still evident today in children and adults whose ancestors faced this horrible scene.
“The Holocaust wiped out many of the most educated and productive people in western Russia,” said co-author James A. Robinson, the David Florence Professor of Government at Harvard. “It was a major shock to the social structure of the invaded regions, dramatically reducing the size of the Russian middle class.
Jewish children were hidden in the Netherlands from to save them from Nazi deportation. After the war the few surviving Jewish parents, deeply traumatized, began the difficult search for their children.
The children’s return home involved many psychological problems both for themselves.