October 4, Depiction of a Strong Country Our country has suffered from multiple, devastating events. One of the most catastrophic events includes the September eleventh terrorist attacks. Our nation faced one of the most damaging attacks in history; and it was up to our president at the time, President George W.
Some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of trees. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, and that the name means "many butterflies" in an indigenous language.
This was communicated to the Crown and in Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there.
Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means "abundance of fish, trees and butterflies". This is the official definition given in Social Studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama.
However, others believe the word panama comes from the Kuna word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away". Kunas are one of the native tribes of the country.
Pre-Columbian period The Isthmus of Panama was formed in a very long process that started 20 million years ago, up to about 3 million years ago when the isthmus finally closed and plants and animals gradually crossed it in both directions Mayo The earliest traces of these indigenous peoples include fluted projectile points.
Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery -making villages in the Americassuch as the Monagrillo culture dating to about — BC. These evolved into significant populations that are best known through the spectacular burials of the Conte site dating to c.
The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles Chiriqui site were another important clue of the ancient isthmian cultures. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Panama was widely settled by ChibchanChocoanand Cueva peoples, among whom the largest group were the Cueva whose specific language affiliation is poorly documented.
There is no accurate knowledge of the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of the European conquest. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer toArcheological finds as well as testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people already conditioned by regular regional routes of commerce.
Rodrigo de Bastidassailing westward from Venezuela in in search of gold, was the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year later, Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus and established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa 's tortuous trek from the Atlantic to the Pacific in demonstrated that the Isthmus was, indeed, the path between the seas, and Panama quickly became the crossroads and marketplace of Spain 's empire in the New World.
Gold and silver were brought by ship from South America, hauled across the isthmus, and loaded aboard ships for Spain. The route became known as the Camino Real, or Royal Road, although it was more commonly known as Camino de Cruces Road of the Crosses because of the abundance of gravesites along the way.
Panama was part of the Spanish empire for years — From the outset, Panamanian identity was based on a sense of "geographic destiny," and Panamanian fortunes fluctuated with the geopolitical importance of the isthmus.
The colonial experience also spawned Panamanian nationalism as well as a racially complex and highly stratified society, the source of internal conflicts that ran counter to the unifying force of nationalism. A Real Audiencia royal audiency was a judicial district that functioned as an appeals court.
Each audiencia had oidores Spanish: Panama was the site of the ill-fated Darien schemewhich set up a Scottish colony in the region in This failed for a number of reasons, and the ensuing debt contributed to the union of England and Scotland in When Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples who survived many diseases, massacres and enslavement of the conquest ultimately fled into the forest and nearby islands.
Indian slaves were replaced by Africans. The prosperity enjoyed during the first two centuries — while contributing to colonial growth; the placing of extensive regional judicial authority Real Audiencia as part of its jurisdiction; and the pivotal role it played at the height of the Spanish Empire -the first modern global empire- helped define a distinctive sense of autonomy and of regional or national identity within Panama well before the rest of the colonies.
While the Panama route was short it was also labor intensive and expensive because of the loading and unloading and laden-down trek required to get from the one coast to the other. The Panama route was also vulnerable to attack from pirates mostly Dutch and English and from 'new world' Africans called cimarrons who had freed themselves from enslavement and lived in communes or palenques around the Camino Real in Panama's Interior, and on some of the islands off Panama's Pacific coast.
Inthe viceroyalty of New Granada northern South America was created in response to other Europeans trying to take Spanish territory in the Caribbean region.
The Isthmus of Panama was placed under its jurisdiction. But the remoteness of Santa Fe de Bogota proved a greater obstacle than the Spanish crown anticipated as the authority of New Granada was contested by the seniority, closer proximity, previous ties to the viceroyalty of Lima and even Panama's own initiative.
This uneasy relationship between Panama and Bogota would persist for century or two. Modern Panamanian history has been shaped by its transisthmian canalwhich had been a dream since the beginning of Spanish colonization.
From toa French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal. On the other hand, the Panamanian movement for independence can be indirectly attributed to the abolishment of the encomienda system in Azuero, set forth by the Spanish Crown, in because of repeated protests by locals against the mistreatment of the native population.
In its stead, a system of medium and smaller-sized landownership was promoted, thus taking away the power from the large landowners and into the hands of medium and small sized proprietors.
The end of the encomienda system in Azuero, however, sparked the conquest of Veraguas in that same year. In the newly conquered region, the old system of encomienda was imposed. It was a unilateral decision by the residents of Azuero without backing from Panama City to declare their separation from the Spanish Empire.
In both Veraguas and the capital this act was met with disdain, although on differing levels.The new system is now operational for medical emgergencies only.
Most coverage is in and around Panama City. However, during major holidays or national festivals, units are stationed around the country especially in Las Tablas, David, Chitre, and Santiago. focuses on speech no matter where it is coming from, even from behind.
OVER THE EAR-OPEN FIT $ 2 Yr. Fac. Warr. w/Loss/Damage Ins. SAVE uP50% ON NATIONAL BRANDS and called When deputies made contact with Sossei, who left the premises and went to a friend's house, he claimed he didn't re-member what happened.
Sat 16 Feb - The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: - ) Page 1 - Advertising. May 25, · Some soapstone for marking, extra goggles to use with the torch, a spare welding helmet with several glass lenses, a quantity of brazing rods and some borax flux for them all got written down.
My old Miller stick welder was still in good shape, and they lasted forever, so I saw no need to spring for a new one. Speech Training Equipment (For the Hearing Impaired) Emergency Warning Systems Maintenance and Repair (Including Civil Defense and Natural Disaster Equipment).
• President George W. Bush labeled the previous day’s terrorist attacks “acts of war” and asked Congress for $20 billion to rebuild and recover. • The Duke of Cambridge, Prince William, completed his last shift as a search and rescue helicopter pilot in the Royal Air Force.