Leadership Theories Behavioral Theory This theory focuses especially on what highly effective leaders do. This theory is often preferred by educators because behaviors can rather easily be seen and duplicated.
International Differences in Work-Related Values was published. The original data set, derived fromquestionnaires in 20 different languages comparing 88, respondents from 66 countries in 50 occupations, was eventually stabilized to include 53 countries and regions Hofstede, a.
The survey instrument could be divided into those questions relevant to work satisfaction, perceptions, personal goals and beliefs, as well as demographics. Hofstede's interest was restricted to those questions pertinent to values or " Using theoretical guidance on the mammoth data set, Hofstede extracted the fundamental blueprint of his conceptualization of four basic dimensions, or indices, across which employees of different countries may be meaningfully compared.
The four dimensions are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity. Briefly, power distance is the societal acceptance of hierarchy; uncertainty is the cultural tolerance of ambiguity; individualism is the societal predilection for inter-dependence; and masculinity is the culture's desire for sex-role differentiation.
Since this phenomenal beginning, Hofstede ; a, b, c; a, b, c; ; and others e. However, the discussion, with few exceptions e.
Since workers are often consumers too, the purpose of this paper is to present Hofstede's work and to suggest that his ideas on work-related behaviors may be relevant to cross-cultural differences and similarities in consumptive behavior as well.
The discussion of the present paper will focus on the dimensions as conceptualizations, and not on the methodological and statistical methods employed to derive the four indexes. For those interested, the abridged c and complete version of Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values are excellent in their detail of the research and statistical analysis process used to derive these four dimensions.
The remaining differences are country-specific, i. Appendix B presents a table of the four major dimensions, a brief definition of the dimensions, the highest and lowest countries on each dimension, as well as selected implications for consumer behavior.
Power Distance Power distance is the societal desire for hierarchy. Expressed more eloquently, Hofstede b defines it as: Power distance is the extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally People in Large Power Distance societies accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place which needs no further justification.
People in Small Power Distance societies strive for power equalization and demand justification for power inequalities among people when they occur.
Further, the colder the climate, the smaller the power distance. Using a Darwinian type of explanation whereby social "pecking" orders are leveled and even negated by the need for mere survival, Hofstede speculates that " Human survival in colder climates presupposes protection against the hardships of nature, which means that only those people survived who were able to master the minimal technical skills necessary for survival.
In warmer climates the need for technology was less" p. Thus, where survival is dependent upon technology, social stratification becomes irrelevant. Regarding wealth, Hofstede states "Greater wealth presupposes higher technology; higher technology calls for higher-educated but also better-paid lower and middle strata; so wealth will be more equally distributed and power also will be more equally distributed" p.
What then are the consequents and correlates of the power distance dimension for consumer behavior? A very obvious hypothesis suggested by Hofstede's research is that there will be a correlation between geographical latitude and the consumption of technology, probably not only in terms of the amount of technology purchased but also in terms of the sophistication of the technology as well.
Additionally, although it remains to be seen whether the term "better" should be operationalized in terms of either volume or quality, another hypothesis would be that those consumers in low Power Distance countries due to either wealth or education would be better consumers than those in high Power Distance countries.
If conspicuous consumption is any indication of social class, then low Power Distance countries, where social class stratifications are less predominant, would not be as likely to have displays of conspicuous consumption, as high power distance countries. If religious preference may be considered within the domain of consumer choice, then Hofstede's research already indicates some tangible applicability to consumer research.Explore Ashford University's online Business Administration degree courses and classes covering areas of management, leadership, and more.
(4) Gender differences in leadership styles The findings suggest that the management styles emphasised by female accountants differ somewhat from the management style emphasised by male accountants.
Sheryl Sandberg got people talking about gender equality at work with her best-seller, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead (Knopf, )—but why should women have to do all.
In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego.
and strategies that have successfully sustained women in leadership positions and in the boardrooms. Improving gender equality and the empowerment of women is one of the principles of the Commonwealth and detailed in the Commonwealth’s Plan of Action for Gender Equality Gender and leadership is a subject that is concerned with two main questions: (1) What are the determinants of male/female differences in who assumes leadership positions and in leadership behavior?
and (2) How is leadership a gendered concept?