Although in the first few centuries AD Christians were prosecuted and punished, often with death, there were also periods when they were more secure. Secondly, the rise of Christianity to imperial-sponsored dominance in the fourth and fifth centuries, although surprising, was not without precedent, and its spread hardly as inexorable as contemporary Christians portrayed it. Christians were first - and horribly - persecuted by the emperor Nero. Christians were first, and horribly, targeted for persecution as a group by the emperor Nero in 64 AD.
Religion and Violence 1. Religious Wars Since the awakening of religion, wars have been fought in the name of different gods and goddesses. Still today most violent conflicts contain religious elements linked up with ethno-national, inter-state, economic, territorial, cultural and other issues.
Threatening the meaning of life, conflicts based on religion tend to become dogged, tenacious and brutal types of wars. When conflicts are couched in religious terms, they become transformed in value conflicts. Unlike other issues, such as resource conflicts which can be resolved by pragmatic and distributive means, value conflicts have a tendency to become mutually conclusive or zero-sum issues.
They entail strong judgments of what is right and wrong, and parties believe that there cannot be a common ground to resolve their differences. Religious conviction is, as it has ever been, a source of conflict within and between communities. It should, however, be remembered that it was not religion that has made the twentieth the most bloody century.
Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Mao Tse-tung, Pol Pot and their apprentices in Rwanda maimed and murdered millions of people on a unprecedented scale, in the name of a policy which rejected religious or other transcendent reference points for judging its purposes and practices Weigel, Those policies were based on an ideology having the same characteristics as a religion.
In a world where many governments and international organizations are suffering from a legitimacy deficit, one can expect a growing impact of religious discourses on international politics.
Religion is a major source of soft power. It will, to a greater extent, be used or misused by religions and governmental organizations to pursue their interests. It is therefore important to develop a more profound understanding of the basic assumption underlying the different religions and the ways in which people adhering to them see their interests.
It would also be very useful to identify elements of communality between the major religions. The major challenge of religious organizations remains to end existing and prevent new religious conflicts.
In Europe there were only two: Yugoslavia and Northern Ireland. No religious wars were registered in the Americas See Table 2. These wars could be further classified by distinguishing violent conflicts within and between religions and between religious organizations and the central government.
In Europe, Bosnian Muslims have, for more than two years, been brutally harried by Serbs who are called Christians.
Northern Ireland Catholic vs. Philippines Mindanao Muslims vs.
Bangladesh Buddhists vs. Lebanon Shiites supported by Syria Amal vs. Shiites supported by Iran Hezbollah 7. Ethiopia Oromo Muslims vs.
India Punjab Sikhs vs. Mali-Tuareg Nomads Muslims vs.
Azerbejdan Muslims vs. India Kasjmir Muslims vs. Central government Hindu Indonesia Aceh Muslims vs. Central government Muslim Iraq Sunnites vs. Yugoslavia Croatia Serbian orthodox Christians vs.
Roman Catholic Christians Yugoslavia Bosnia Orthodox Christians vs. Afghanistan Fundamentalist Muslims vs. Tadzhikistan Muslims vs.internal conflicts and plural ambitions of native people themselves.
The novel's opening situates the narrative's broader conflicts within a Kenyan landscape that has yet to experience the effects of British colonialism: The two ridges lay side by side.
One was Kameno, the other was Makuyu. Between them was a valley. It was. The influence of Christianity on the Western countries Western Culture refers to the culture that has developed in the western world, while traditional western culture is said to have been created by three main historical factors: Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, and Christianity.
The age-old conflict between Makuyu and Makeno concerns the question on what side of the river Gĩkũyũ and Mumbi stood when Murungu showed them the land, and related to that, which of the two villages can claim spiritual superiority and leadership.
Science vs. religion Conflicts between conservative Christianity and scientific findings. Sponsored link. Quotation: "The chief major battle between [conservative] Christianity and modern science is not about a large number of individual facts, but about the principles that control science in its work.
Christian, Ngugi provides a concrete instance of a cultural conflict between the native Africans - represented here by Chege and other residents of Kameno - and the White European missionaries and the African converts, here represented by Livingstone, Joshua and other residents of Makuyu.
The two tribes are as different as night and day, the Christians who live in Makuyu follow their leader Joshua who is a person with a very limited view of Christianity.
Ngugi describes Joshua as a “man with no roots” (Ngugi ).