Background Andrographis paniculata, APalso known commonly as "King of Bitters," is a member of the plant family Acanthaceae, and has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. It is found in the Indian Pharmacopoeia and is the prominent in at least 26 Ayurvedic formulas; whereas in Traditional Chinese Medicine TCMAndrographis is an important "cold property" herb:
Sources Berberine 2,3-methylenedioxy-9,dimethoxy-protoberberine has been used historically in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine vicariously through herbs which contain it as an anti-microbial, anti-protozoal, and anti-diarrheal agent.
Structure Berberine is known as an isoquinoline alkaloid with the prolonged name of 2,3-methylenedioxy-9,dimethoxy-protoberberine. Berberine Complexes Berberine can complex at a 1: It is thought that these complexes and another Berberine—glycyrrhizin complex enhance absorption through forming ion-pairs and enhancing fat solubility, where the glucuronide of Baicalin has its carboxylate ion bind to the quaternary ammonium ion of Berberine.
Berberine appears to be subject to P-Glycoprotein mediated efflux from the intestines   and liver. Berberine has low rates of absorption when taken orally due to both being subject to P-Glycoprotein ejects Berberine back into the intestines and increasing the activity of P-Glycoprotein augmenting its own ejectionbut absorption is greatly increased when taken with P-Glycoprotein inhibitors such as Silymarin from Milk Thistle.
Absorption has also been enhanced with Sodium Caprate, a medium chain fatty acid that increases the size of tight junctions between intestinal cells increasing paracellular permeability reversibly  and appears to not be associated with adverse structural changes to the intestines when used with Berberine in vivo.
Metabolism Berberine can have its structure metabolized into four possible metabolites known as Thalifendine, Jatrorrhizine, Berberrubine, and Demethyleneberberine; Berberrubine may passively isomerize between two molecules.
Excretion Orally ingested Berberine chloride at mg daily for 3 days was metabolized into three different urinary metabolites, with one thought to be JatrorrhizineSulfate being the primary metabolite being excreted at times more than the other two metabolites Demethyleneberberinesulfate and Thalifendinesulfate, Berberrubine being undetectable in urine.
The inhibitory effect of Berberine on CYP3A4, an enzyme that metabolizes a fair bit of pharmaceuticals the same one that St.
AMPK Adenosine Mono-phosphate Kinase AMPK is a nutrient sensor protein that is central to the actions of various anti-diabetic drugs Metformin and appears to be a central lever point for the actions of Berberine.
Berberine activates AMPK in a dose and time-dependent manner. The regulation appears to be indirect. Telomeres Binding of an agent to the 3' cap of telomeric DNA can interfere with the telomerase enzyme and give the appearance of a telomerase inhibitor, providing a novel mechanism of action for anti-cancer therapy with interest to life extension.
Currently no evidence to suggest how this influences lifespan in living models 5Neurology 5. Adrenergic Neurotransmission In regards to the Alpha-Adrenergic receptors molecular targets of yohimbineBerberine appears to have relatively more affinity for post-synaptic AlphaAdrenergic receptors than presynaptic A2A receptors.
Dopaminergic Neurotransmission Berberine has been found to inhibit the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme in PC12 cells in vitro.
This high dose injection also augmented phenobarbitol-induced sleep time, with lower doses ineffective. There appears to be a protective effect of Berberine when it precedes toxins preventativebut Berberine applied after the toxin therapy appears to have limited evidence to suggest potentiation of toxicity.
Cardiac Tissue Ischemia-Reperfusion injury in cardiac tissue may be alleviated by Berberine. Appears to have beneficial effects on lipid parameters in Diabetics 6. Blood Flow Berberine is a known vasorelaxant in animals   and has been used with success in humans. Platelets Anti-platelet functions have also been noted with berberine, including inhibition of thromboxane synthesis  and increased thrombolysis breaking of clots.In-Depth Review 1.
Background 2. Morphology / Chemistry 3.
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Fermentation of both dietary fiber (DF) and protein in the pig intestine is a matter of interest because of their potential beneficial or harmful effects on gut health and on the environment.