A product approach This is a traditional approach, in which students are encouraged to mimic a model text, which is usually presented and analysed at an early stage. A model for such an approach is outlined below: Stage 1 Model texts are read, and then features of the genre are highlighted. For example, if studying a formal letter, students' attention may be drawn to the importance of paragraphing and the language used to make formal requests.
Early in my teaching career I realised that the learners of different levels should have a sense of purpose, a sense of audience, and a sense of direction as well as be able to discover and articulate ideas in writing.
Therefore, my personal opinion is that the more opportunities for expression learners are given the better writers they may become.
The Product approach proved useful with early beginners and elementary levels; it enabled them to write whole pieces of communication and made them feel confident. Trying to find the best way to approach my learners and wanting to expose them to models of different text types, I sometimes used only the product approach at intermediate and above levels but the outcome was often unsatisfactory.
My attempts to use the process approach with young learners came to an abrupt end sooner than I had expected.
I wish I could develop the writing skills of each student individually and make them able to produce whole texts holistic process. Therefore I feel the need to compare the Product and Process approach to writing at different levels and explore how best to combine the two.
A comparison of the Product and Process Approaches to writing 2. The Product approach is a text-based form approach which focuses on form, gives texts to students to imitate and usually use textbooks which give a range of models.
It is a traditional approach, in which students are encouraged to mimic a model text, which is usually presented and analysed at an early stage. The Product Approach appeared in the mids and was supposed to develop academic writing. Teachers assigned papers and basically attended to the clarity, originality and correctness of the final product without attending to the writing process or to the writers themselves.
This approach consists of four stages: Reflecting on my experience as a teacher, I can say that this approach seems to help only very young learners who know neither many grammatical structures nor much vocabulary so as to individually produce a good piece of writing.
These learners are taught how to write correctly —the emphasis is mainly on accuracy- but do not know how to develop their thinking process and how to get involved.
The sameness of their end products is amazingly shocking because the writing product is preconceived and therefore the teacher does not have much to correct. This approach is easy to use in large classes but has many issues. About twenty years later — in the mid s- there was a move from product approach to process approach which places emphasis on the ideas and idea development and includes prewriting, writing and rewriting.
Learners begin writing with a plan in their heads. They think about what they want to say and who they are writing for. They make a draft of their own they do not imitate or copy and as they proceed they are constantly reviewing, revising and editing their works.
Students have a reader in mind and want to communicate a message. From my experience I can say that this approach appeals mostly to post- intermediate levels for it gives learners the freedom to write what they want to write.
It develops their thinking skills and expands their creativity through eight stages: Depending on my students, their abilities and their needs I frequently use the process approach with B1 and B2 levels. They truly enjoy the process of generating ideas and exchanging drafts.
Moreover certain genres such as discursive essays and narratives are better approached through the process of brainstorming and discussing ideas in groups.
However, formal letters would be more suited to a product approach in which focus on the layout, style, organisation and grammar could make students able to deal with this kind of writing task.
The process approach has many issues. Teenagers sometimes have revolutionary or aggressive ideas whereas adults have fixed personal beliefs that — to put it mildly- lead to heated debates e. Additionally large classes impede the application of the process approach. In the environmental mode the teacher plans activities and the students collaborate with a view to achieving specific aims.
My experience makes me an avid supporter of the opinion that teachers and learners should focus on meaning, written communication has to be purposeful and the learners should be fully engaged in classroom activities. However, opponents to this approach such as Bruton Practical combinations at different levels 4.
Writing at the early level The product approach is ideal for young learners because of the small amount of language they have at their disposal. However, as a teacher and as a mother of four children I am sure young learners like writing, they feel happy when they produce even the smallest piece of writing- because they feel they are making progress.
For this purpose, Byrne suggests teachers should mainly use dialogue writing in order to reinforce language learnt orally. Writing parallel dialogues with the help of keywords, completing a dialogue by choosing from a list of jumbled sentences or putting sentences in order to form a dialogue are some interesting activities that somehow allows young learners to be creative.
Teachers can ask stimulus questions to raise awareness e. The students may be given a model text and asked to write collaboratively a similar text with the help of cues.
Letter-writing gives learners the opportunity to use the language they learnt orally but also familiarises them with linking and sequencing sentences. They also learn something new: The students may be given a short gapped text and a list with suitable linking words to fill in the gaps.
Reordering a jumbled text either a letter or a descriptive narrative and matching titles with paragraphs are all controlled language practice.Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners A DISCUSSION OF RECENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE LITERATURE IN RELATION TO NATIONWIDE STANDARDS.
Following the shift from product to process-oriented approaches, the genre-based approaches to teaching reading and writing came under the spotlight (Hyland, ; Williams & Colomb, ).
Although genre-based pedagogies vary greatly (Hyon, ), the typical genre approaches regard. Academic Writing: Process and Product This volume, published in , consists of papers from the eponymous individually with different aspects of academic writing and its teaching, including that of essay writing, project writing, scientific writing, writing and offers a rich variety of experiences and approaches.
The writing phase, of the academic writing process, is a multi part process. You'll write a draft, edit it and rewrite it, before editing and rewriting again. To begin with, write a rough draft from your notes and plan, made in the planning section.
An Eclectic Approach: a synthesis of the two The product and the process approach can best be combined so as “ to emphasize more the relationship between the writer, the writing environment, and the intended readership”(Swales,). Traditional Approaches to Teaching Writing.
Process/Workshop Approach to Teaching Writing. Writing is a product to be evaluated. Writing is a process to be experienced and, whenever possible, shared.